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  Most popular articles (Since May 18, 2015)

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Significance of phosphorylated epidermal growth factor receptor, matrix metalloproteinases, and E-cadherin in oral cancer
Bhairavi N Vajaria, Kinjal R Patel, Rasheedunnisa Begum, Jayendra B Patel, Franky D Shah, Prabhudas S Patel
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Objective: The most challenging problem in oral cancer is late monitoring and disease spread (metastasis). The study aimed to simultaneously evaluate phosphorylated epidermal growth factor receptor (pEGFR), truncated E-cadherin protein, and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in patients with oral cancer. Methodology: pEGFR and truncated E-cadherin protein were measured from 25 paired tissues by ELISA and Western blot, respectively. Plasma MMPs levels were studied by gelatin zymography from 100 controls and 100 patients with oral cancer. The results revealed significant higher expression of pEGFR and truncated E-cadherin protein in malignant oral cancer tissues as compared to adjacent normal. Plasma MMPs were significantly elevated in patients with oral cancer as compared to the controls. An increase in the levels of pEGFR and truncated E-cadherin protein was observed in advanced and metastatic disease as compared to early and nonmetastatic disease. The levels of MMPs were increased in advanced disease as compared to early disease. Kaplan–Meier's survival analysis indicated that elevated expression of pEGFR, truncated E-cadherin protein, active MMP-2, pro MMP-9, total MMP-2, and total MMP-9 has reduced the overall survival. Conclusion: Simultaneous elevation of pEGFR, truncated E-cadherin protein, and MMPs indicated its role in oral carcinogenesis. Further combination therapies targeting these markers might help in combating oral cancer.
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A closer look at the bone marrow microenvironment in multiple myeloma
Julie Stakiw, Mark Bosch, Hadi Goubran
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Multiple myeloma, a plasma cell (PC) neoplasm accounting for nearly 10% of hematologic malignancies, remains an incurable disease of the bone marrow (BM) with a fascinating pathophysiology. The maladaptive nature of myeloma PCs and the BM microenvironment niche has been recognized to play a crucial role in the pathogenesis and progression of the disease which behaves in a manner similar to solid tumors in their growth and dissemination. A complex interaction between osteoclasts, endothelial cells, BM matrix, myeloid as well as the lymphoid elements and the malignant PCs occurs at the level of the microenvironment favoring the expansion of latter cells and their spread. A better understanding of the diseased PC and their milieu will enable the development of novel therapeutic tools capable of improving the outcome of this incurable blood cancer.
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Ursolic acid and quercetin: Promising anticancer phytochemicals with antimetastatic and antiangiogenic potential
Dharambir Kashyap, Hardeep Singh Tuli, Vivek Kumar Garg, Suhasini Bhatnagar, Anil K Sharma
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Despite available treatments, the incidence of the cancer is increasing and known to be a major cause of mortality worldwide. Plant-derived terpenoids and flavonoids are considered as promising therapeutic molecules, possessing a range of medicinal properties. These phytochemicals have been used as therapeutic agents for the treatment of the various chronic infections. Terpenoids and flavonoids, particularly ursolic acid (UA) and quercetin (Quer), respectively, are emerging as effective antitumor molecules with minimal cytotoxic effects on the normal body tissues. The regulatory role of these molecules in apoptosis, angiogenesis, invasion, or metastasis has been well documented in earlier studies. Angiogenesis and metastasis are the two important hallmarks for the survival of tumor and are responsible for 50% mortality in the cancer patients. Tumor angiogenesis and metastasis have been found to be significantly inhibited in the presence of UA and Quer. Evidence suggested that these phytochemicals inhibit the initiator and progressive cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors such as matrix metalloproteinases involved in extracellular matrix remodeling during tumor metastasis. In addition, the angiogenesis-associated factors such as hypoxia-inducible factor-α and vascular endothelial growth factor/vascular endothelial growth factor receptor have also been downregulated by UA and Quer. In the present review, molecular targets of UA and Quer, in tumor metastasis and angiogenesis, have been summarized.
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